Monday, May 21, 2018

 LAP at LASA 2018

We look forward to seeing many of our editors and friends in Barcelona  at LASA.

LAP Booth – We will be at booth B-42 in the exhibit area. We will have brochures, flyers, and calls for papers.  It would be great if you want to distribute these in your sessions. Just stop by and pick up what you need.  We will also have sample copies of books from our series with Rowman and Littlefield. The exhibit hours will be: Thursday and Friday, May 24 and 25, from 9:30 am to 7:30 pm and Saturday, May 26, from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm. We would appreciate anyone who can help us staff the table for an hour or two.

Roman and Littlefield booth - B-40

Meeting of Editors and Friends of Latin American Perspectives
Thursday, May 24, 9:00 – 10:30 am AC Hotel Barcelona Forum – Sala Vallvidrera
We look forward to seeing you at our annual get-together to discuss LAP’s work during the past year and future plans. In the printed program, the session is listed in the Highlights section on p. xxi as an “outside activity” rather than as a session in the listings by day and time but it has been added to the day and time section of the app. We don’t think that it will be possible to provide refreshments, so we suggest having breakfast before the meeting or bringing it with you.

Featured Session on Publishing in Academic Journals with editors from LAS journals
002//Pre-Conference Workshop - Disseminating Your Research 1: Publishing in Academic Journals
Tuesday, May 22, 2-4 pm Hotel Barcelona Princess, Sala Mediterráneo-P2
Presenter: Ron Chilcote

Book Presentations with Authors from the LAP book series:
Short presentations and question/discussion session with book authors:
Twentieth-Century Latin American Revolutions - Marc Becker
Rethinking Latin American Social Movements – Marc Becker, Richard Stahler-Sholk and HarryVanden (eds.)
Saturday, May 26,  3:45-4:15 pm   Along the exhibit area wall opposite Booth B-07

List of Sessions with LAP Editors and Book Authors

Tuesday, May 22

Workshop -Disseminating Your Research 1: Publishing in Academic Journals
2-4 pm Hotel Barcelona Princess, Sala Mediterráneo-P2
Presenter: Ron Chilcote

Workshop - Publishing for Impact: How (and Where) to Write for Popular Readerships
3:30-5:30     Sponsored by NACLA Hotel Barcelona Princess, 2nd Floor Forum

Wednesday, May 23

010 // Building Social Protection for Vulnerable Women and Girls
9-10:30 am,  Panel Sala CCIB M215 M2
Discussant: Cecilia MacDowell Santos

045 // Navigating the Terrain of Resource Extraction
9-10:30 am,  Panel  Sala CCIB 116  P1
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Organizer: Nicole W Fabricant
Chair and Discussant: Linda C Farthing

097 // Media and Democratization in Latin America
10:45am - 12:15pm,  Panel  Sala PRIN Mediterráneo P2
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Organizer: Tomás F Crowder Taraborrelli

108 // Racionalidades Técnicas e Retóricas de Modernização: Faces e Contrafaces de Modelos Internacionais nas Dinâmicas de Ensino, Pesquisa e Trabalho 2
10:45am - 12:15 pm, Panel  Sala CCIB 131 P1
Discussant: Clifford A Welch

173 // Mundos do Trabalho no Brasil Contemporâneo experiências, direitos e lutas
12:30 - 2:00 pm, Panel Sala CCIB M217 M2.
Chair: Clifford A Welch

260 // Brazilian Foreign Policy in Hard Times: Adjusting to Political and Economic Crisis
4:00 - 5:30 pm,  LASA Section Presentation Sala CCIB 116 P1
Discussant: Anthony W Pereira

378 // The Americas, the election of Donald Trump, and the return of the Right
5:45 - 7:15pm, Roundtable Sala SB Sur América P1
Presenter: Miguel R Tinker Salas

Thursday, May 24

Meeting of Editors and Friends of Latin American Perspectives
9:00 – 10:30 am AC Hotel Barcelona Forum – Sala Vallvidrera

416 // Las relaciones entre Cuba y la Unión Europea en la era de Trump
9:00 - 10:30 am, Workshop Sala CCIB 115 P1
Presenter: Francisco Lopez Segrera

419 // Latin American Gentrifications. Part I: New approaches and lines of thought
9:00 - 10:30am, Panel Sala CCIB M221 M2
Organizar and Pressenter: Clara E Irazabal

483 // Latin American Gentrifications. Part II: New cases and impacts
10:45am - 2:15pm, Panel Sala CCIB M221 M2
Organizer: Clara E Irazabal

682 // Mujeres en Cuba. Agencias, debates y necesidades para una agenda feminista
4:00 - 5:30 pm, Panel Sala HLT MR 5 P1.
Discussant: Elizabeth Dore

698 // Varieties of Populism
4:00 - 5:30pm, Panel Sala CCIB M220 M2
Presenter: Francisco Lopez Segrera

Friday, May 25

863 // Los niveles de organización de los trabajadores rurales en América Latina en un mundo globalizado: problemas y perspectivas
9:00 - 10:30am, LASA Section Presentation Sala CCIB 133 P1
Presenter: Clifford A Welch

891 // The Rise of Panamanian Cinema
9:00 -0:30am, LASA Section Presentation Sala CCIB 128 P1
Presenter: Richard Potter

894 //  Understanding Brazil’s Political Crisis: A Multidimensional Approach
9:00 - 10:30am, LASA Section Presentation Sala CCIB 116 P1
Discussant: Anthony W Pereira

924 // Kalman Silvert Award: Gender, Land and Wealth: Looking Backwards, Moving Forward
10:45 am - 12:15pm, Sala CCIB 111 P1
Silvert Award Lecture: Carmen Diana Deere

997 // Más allá del barrio: relaciones y procesos de proximidad en la producción de lo urbano
12:30-2:00pm, Roundtable Sala CCIB M2 12 M2
Presenter: Clara E Irazabal

1038 // Cómo investigar en Cuba
 2:15 -3:45pm, Workshop Sala CCIB 115 P1
Presenter: Sheryl L Lutjens

1124 // Las brechas de género en el contexto laboral cubano.  Un análisis desde la política y las trayectorias laborales
4:00 - 5:30 pm, Panel Sala AC Born P3.
Chair: Sheryl L Lutjens

1137 // Reframing, Rethinking and Rewriting Central American Immigrant Lives in the U.S.: Multidisciplinary perspectives
4:00 - 5:30 pm, PanelSala PRIN Princess 1 P2
Discussant: Susanne L Jonas

1153 // Vidas Descartables: la Violencia contra las Mujeres Como Necropolítica de Género en América Latina
4:00 - 5:30pm, Panel Sala PRIN Estrella de Mar P2
Presenter: Cecilia MacDowell Santos

1178 // Economía política, sociedad y democracia ciudadana en Cuba y España
5:45 - 7:15pm, Panel Sala CCIB 115 P1
Presenter: Rafael Meinardo Hernández Rodríguez

1248 // Knowledge and Power in International Relations:  U.S. - Cuba Academic Relations in Their Historical and Political Context-
7:30pm - 9:00pm, Workshop Sala SB Sur América P1
Organizer: Sheryl L Lutjens
Presenter: Rafael Meinardo Hernández Rodríguez

Saturday, May 26

1313 // Imaginarios juveniles latinoamericanos y caribeños a cerca de la violencia contra las mujeres
9:00 - 10:30 am, Panel Sala SB Europa P1
Session Organizer: Sheryl L Lutjens

1334 // Procesos socioculturales y participación. Impactos de las desigualdades en la sociedad cubana actual
 9:00 - 10:30am, Panel Sala PRIN Mediterráneo P2
Presenter: Elizabeth Dore

1353 // Transnational Humans and Transnationalism in the Humanities: Crossing Boundaries in the Americas
9:00 - 10:30am, Workshop Sala SB Norte América P1
Presenter: Barry Carr

1357 //  The FBI in Latin America  (Duke University Press)
10:30 - 1:00 am, Authors and Book Presentation CCIB Banquet Hall P2
Presenters: Marc Becker, Miguel R Tinker Salas, Barry Carr

1387 // La hora de los hornos (F. Solanas y O. Getino, 1968), cincuenta años después.
Parte II
10:45am - 2:15 pm, Panel Sala HLT MR 12 P2:
Presenter: Kristi M Wilson

1454 // Latinos and the US Urban Crises. Part II
12:30 - 2:00pm, Panel Sala CCIB 134 P1
Presenter: Susanne L Jonas

1527 // Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking in Latin America
2:15 -:45pm, Panel  Sala CCIB 122 P1
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Chair: Daniela Issa

1540 // The Crisis of the Magical State in Venezuela
2:15 - 3:45pm, Panel Sala CCIB 114 P1
Chair and Presenter: Daniel C Hellinger

1546 // Transnational Politics, Family, Networks, Race and Gender in an Era of Globalization
2:15 - 3:45pm, Panel  Sala SB Asia P1
Presenter: Susan Eckstein

1553 // Century Latin American Revolutions /  Rethinking Latin American Social Movements: Radical Action From Below
3:45 - 4:15pm, Authors and Book Presentation CCIB Banquet Hall P2
Latin American Perspectives in the Classroom Series by Rowman & Littlefield
Presenters: Marc Becker, Richard Stahler-Sholk, Harry Vanden

1583 // Modern Slavery and Trafficking in Latin America: Issues, Challenges and the Need
for Research-
4:00 - 5:30 pm, Roundtable Sala CCIB 120 P1
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Session Organizer: Daniela Issa

1591 // Nuevas Fronteras en el Estudio de la Emigración Cubana y las Comunidades Cubanoamericanas
4:00 - 5:30pm, Workshop Sala CCIB 134 P1
Presenter: Susan Eckstein

1619 // Contribución del sector agropecuario al desarrollo. Posibilidades para Cuba a partir del potencial de comercio
5:45  - 7:15pm, Panel Sala CCIB M213 M2
Discussant: Carmen Diana Deere

1631 // Gender, Sexuality, Film and Media in Latin America: Challenging Representation and Global Structures
5:45 - 7:15pm,  Workshop Sala PRIN Princess 2 P2
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Organizer: Kristi M Wilson
Presenters: Tomás F Crowder Taraborrelli

1670 // Trump y sus efectos para América Latina: Apuntes para el debate
5:45 - 7:15pm,  Panel Sala SB Sur América P1
Sponsor: Latin American Perspectives
Presenter: Luis Armando Suárez Salazar

1684 // Elite and Popular Responses to the Left: transformation or return to neoliberal globalization? Part II
7:30-9 pm, Pane Sala CCIB 131-P1
Discussant: Harry Vanden
Presenter: Marc Becker

Other Events

LAP-related Books at the CLACSO Exhibit

We expect that the first volume of  Latin American Perspectives en Español y Portugués will be available at the CLACSO booth. It is titled Buscando alternativas políticas y económicas and includes 14 articles in three sections: Economía Política: Panorama Continental; Poder, El Estado, y Luchas Populares; and Medio Ambiente. The chapters are the original Spanish or Portuguese versions of articles published in LAP in 2015 and 2016, except for two which were translated from English to Spanish. It is also available on-line on the CLACSO web site.  We are currently working on Volume 2.

Wednesday, May 23

CLACSO-Oxfam Colloquium

Elites y captura de la democracia en America Latina, el Caribe, y Europa
9 am – 3pm  Centro de Cultura Contemporanea de Barcelona (CCCB), Carrer de Montalagre, 5, Barcelona – Sala Mirador
Mesa de apertura
Ponencia magistral
Elites, democracia y desigualdad
Conceptos clave, metodología y casos de aplicación
Mesa de clausura y Palabras de cierre

CLACSO-sponsored Demonstration:
To free Lula, for Brazilian democracy and in memory of Marielle Franco

Starting at 4 pm    Centro Internacional de Convenciones (CCIB) – entrada de las salas 111-112

Thursday, May 24

NACLA 50th Anniversary Events

Documentary Showcase: Tregua  in partnership with Pablo Navarette and Alborada Films
Screenings 7:00 - 8:00 pm and 8:00 - 10:00 pm (second screening with Q&A)
Nook Art Space, Nou de la Rambla 143, 08004, Poble Sec

Tregua explores the Colombian peace negotiations through the stories of women FARC guerrillas. These women have laid down their arms, left the Colombian jungle and are now  in Havana, Cuba negotiating a peace deal with the Colombian government, which they hope will not only bring an end to the world’s longest armed conflict, but will also guarantee women’s rights and social justice in Colombia. While the drama unfolds, Tregua also turns its lens on the journalists reporting on the peace talks, and on Havana’s inhabitants as they go about their everyday lives.

NACLA 50th Anniversary Reception   9:30-11:00 pm; Toast at 9:50 pm
Center Conventions Internacional Barcelona, First Floor Terrace, Room 127,
Willy Brandt Square 11-14, 08019

Reception and toast celebrating 50 years in print featuring remarks by NACLA executive editor‚ Alejandro Velasco‚ as well as light snacks and refreshments. Arrive by 9:50PM for the toast!

Thursday, May 3, 2018

  Media, Politics, and Democratization in Latin America

Edited by: Javier Campo and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli

Issue 220 | Volume 45 | Number 3 | May 2018

Table of Contents

   This special issue of Latin American Perspectives investigates a matter that has undergone critical transformations in recent years. From the period of progressive governments to the current neoliberal restoration, the media went from being thought of as a public service to a private business. This issue features articles on Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico and Argentina and covers a broad disciplinary spectrum of studies: from the laws of communication put into practice or projected, to the deregulation of the most advanced legislations of Latin America, to communication rights, audiovisual analysis, memory studies and historiographies of the Latin American left.

   The editors were committed to organizing a special issue about the favorable democratization of the media, but in the process, the media landscape was transformed into a reactionary onslaught of the monopolies of information and communication; a process that ended in the electoral victories of right-wing corporatists.

Listen to the Podcast!

  Alexander Scott, Outreach Coordinator for Latin American Perspectives, interviews special guest editors Javier Campo and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli on the subject of the May 2018 issue: "Media, Politics, and Democratization in Latin America."

CLICK HERE to listen to the podcast!
Podcast is also available in SPANISH! Listen here.

Monday, April 30, 2018

Thursday, April 26, 2018


INTS 130-01 (1608)
Tomás F. Crowder-Taraborrelli
Office hours: Maathai 414, Mondays 10:15 to 11:00 a.m
Class Time: Tuesdays and Thursdays 1:00 - 2:30 p.m.

It is a great pleasure and also a great challenge to teach a course like this. Since the Wars of Independence, Latin America has seen dramatic changes in its political and social identity. The last century has been marked by a never-ending series of coup d’états, often times sponsored by U.S. governments, which have undermined democratic governments and their policies. In spite of this, Latin America has shown resilience and continues to advance a progressive agenda that strives to do away with social inequality. In this course, we will examine the history of the region, paying particular attention to major political changes and their repercussion in popular culture. The course is organized chronologically, but we will always strive to assess how past events mobilize social forces in the present.

Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America.
New York: Monthly Review Press, 1997.
Chasteen, John Charles, Born in Blood and Fire: A
Concise History of Latin America, 2nd ed., N.Y.; London: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006.

There are four types of assignments in this course: a group or individual presentation (based on the assigned discussion topic readings), a mid-term exam and a final argumentative research paper (8 - 10 pages).

I have organized course readings in two categories: common readings (CR) and assigned readings (AR). All students will have to read Common Readings and students assigned to a particular discussion topic will read CRs and also Discussion Topic Readings. Students are encouraged to read all readings, but I understand that it might not be possible. Since discussion is an essential part of each class, please complete all the readings before class and bring to class a few questions to generate dialogue. Always bring hard copies of the reading to class so you can cite passages and/or page numbers during discussion.

Tentative schedule of Readings and Assignments (Please check our Bright Space course site for more information about the readings)

Week 1
"The Conquest"

Thursday September 8th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 1-58 (CR)
Fernandez Retamar, Roberto. “Caliban: A question”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. (375- 378) (CR)

Week 2
Tuesday September 13th
Cabeza de Vaca. Naufragios [selections] (CR)
Moreno Fraginals, M. “The Death of the Forest” (AR)
Chasteen, J. Born in Blood and Fire, Chapter 1 (CR)
Las Casas, Bartolome. In Defense of the Indians. (Selections)
Rodriguez, Silvio. "La maza". Song [COURSE WEBSITE, April 24, 2018]

Thursday September 15th
Galeano, E. TOVOLA 59-113 (CR)
FILM: La hora de los hornos, dir. Grupo Cine Liberación [first part screened in class] [COURSE WEBSITE, April 23, 2018]

Week 3
The Conquest and Colonialism

TUESDAY September 20th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 59-133 (CR)
Mills, Keneth and William B. Taylor. Colonial Spanish America: Chapters 6, 12,15.
FILM: La tierra quema, Dir. Raymundo Gleyzer [COURSE WEBSITE, April 22, 2018]

THURSDAY September 22nd
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire. Chapter 1 (25-57) (AR)
Manzano, Juan Francisco. “Autobiography of a slave” The Cuba Reader (49-57) (AR)
Cuban Music: "Santa Barbara, Que viva Chango", Conjunto Folklorico Nacional de Cuba. [COURSE WEBSITE, April 21, 2018]

Film: Inner Borderlines: Visions of America Through The Eyes of Alejandro Morales, 7 p.m. Pauling 216

Week 4

TUESDAY September 27th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 113-133 (CR)
Marti, Jose. “Our America” and other selected essays. (CR)
Introd. to Sarmiento's Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants(CR)
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire. Chapter 3, 91-112 (AR)

THURSDAY September 29th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 134-170 (CR)
Ortiz, Fernando. “Tobacco and Sugar”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. 
Ortiz, Fernando. "Transculturation". The Cuba Reader.
Moore, Robin. “Afrocubanismo and Son” (192-200)
Sublette, Ned. Cuba and Its Music. (Available in the library as an electronic text) Recommended reading.
Parra, Violeta. "Easy for singing", "Dumb, Sad and Thoughtful" (AR)
FILM: Violeta se fue a los cielos, dir. Andres Wood (Chile, 2011) [selection] [COURSE WEBSITE, April 20, 2018]

Week 5


TUESDAY October 4th
Skidmore, Thomas E., Peter H. Smith & James N. Green. “Mexico: The Taming of a Revolution”. Modern Latin America. (47-78)
Florescano, Enrique. "The Colonial Latifundio" (CR)

THURSDAY, October 6th
The Mexican Revolution. Selection of readings (Angel): Flores Magon, "Land and Liberty", Zapata and others, "Plan of Ayala", Cabrera, "The Restoration of the Ejido" (CR)
Mexico at the Hour of Combat: Sabino Osuna's Photographs of the Mexican Revolution (in class writing workshop)
Sosa, Mercedes, "Gracias a la Vida" [COURSE WEBSITE, April 19, 2018]
Yupanqui, Atahualpa. “El Arriero”, Divididos "El Arriero" [COURSE WEBSITE, April 19, 2018]

Week 6

TUESDAY October 11th
Skidmore, Thomas E., Peter H. Smith & James N. Green. “Brazil: The Awakening Giant”. (296- 340) CR 
de Andrade, Oswald. “Anthropophagite Manifesto”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. (96-99) (CR)

THURSDAY October 13th
Lispector, Clarice. “Creating Brasilia”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. (331- 334). AR
Buarque, Chico. Construcao. Songs by Caetano Veloso, Jorge Bem [Played and discussed in class, see COURSE WEBSITE, April 18, 2018, for lyrics and music]
Short documentary on Brasilia [sequence screened in class] Brasilia, contradicoes de uma Cidade Nova
dir. Joaquim Pedro, 1967.

Week 7
Tuesday October 18th
FILM Screening: Title to be announced

Thursday October 20th
Readings to be announced

Week 8
Tuesday, October 25th


Thursday October 27th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. Chapter 5. 205- 261 (CR)
Research paper topic due!

Week 9
Tuesday, November 1st
Guevara, Che. “Man and Socialism”. (370-374) Cuban Reader (CR)
Chapter X, Social Revolution. Problems in Modern Latin America (CR)
Alvarez, Santiago. Now [short film screened in class] [COURSE WEBSITE April 17, 2018]

Thursday, November 3rd
Espinosa, Julio Garcia Espinosa. “For an Imperfect Cinema”. The Cuba Reader.
Desnoes, Edmundo. “Inconsolable Memories: A Cuban View of the Missile Crises”.
Schwartz, Rosalie . “The Invasion of the tourist”. (244-252)
Class discussion of final research papers

Week 10
Alternative Forms of Government

Tuesday November 8th
Sitrin, Marina. Everyday Revolutions...Chapter 3, "Horizontalidad" (CR)
Zibechi, Raul. Territories in Resistance. Chapter 16 "The Art of Governing Movements" (CR)

Thursday November 10th
Campo, Javier and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli. Introduction: Media and Democratization. Unpublished Introduction of a Special Issue of Latin American Perspectives.

Week 11
State Terrorism

Tuesday November 15th
Arditti, Rita. Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared
Children of Argentina
50-78 (CR)
Dinges, John. The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents. 99-125 (CR)
FILM: La batalla de Chile, Dir. Patricio Guzmán [selection] [COURSE WEBSITE, April 16, 2018]

Thursday, November 17th.
Walsh, Roberto. “Carta a la Junta”.
Davis, Jeffrey. “Moving the Process and Proving The Truth”. Seeking Human Rights Justice in Latin America.
FILM: Fernando Ha Vuelto. Dir. Silvio Caiozzi. [COURSE WEBSITE, April 15, 2018]

Week 12
Religion and Liberation

Tuesday November 22nd
Gutiérrez, Gustavo. A Theology of Liberation, "Theology and Liberation" (CR).
Carroll, James. "Who am I to judge..." New Yorker Magazine("
NewYorkerPopeArticle" on Bright Space)

Thursday November 24th
Reading TBA.

Week 13
Narcoscapes and Narcoculture

Tuesday November 29th
Cabanas, Miguel A. Narcoculture and the Politics of Representation (CR)
FILM: Narco Cultura, dir. Shaul Shwarz (on Netflix, streaming)

Thursday December 1st
Eisenhammer, Stephen. “Bare Life in Ciudad Juarez: Violence in a Space of Exclusion” (AR)
FILM: Señorita Extraviada (selection). [COURSE WEBSITE April 14, 2018]

Week 14
Water Wars

Tuesday December 6th
Dangl, Benjamin. The Price of Fire: Resource Wars and Social Movements in Bolivia. Chapters 3 and 4 CR)
FILMS: The Corporation and Even the Rain [selections]. [COURSE WEBSITE April 13, 2018]

Thursday December 8th
Oral presentations

15th Week
Tuesday December 13th
Study Day

Thursday December 15th
Oral presentations if needed
Final Research paper due


Ahrens, Jan Martínez. “El peso mexicano sufre la peor caída del planeta por el efecto Trump.” El País, 11 Nov. 2016,

Benjamin, Jules R. The United States and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution. Princeton University Press, 1992. Print.

Burton, J. “The cameras as ‘gun’: Two decades of culture and resistance in Latin America.” Latin American Perspectives, 1978. Print.

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)'s Constitution of 2009. Oxford University Press, Inc.,

Cabeza De Vaca, Naufragios de Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. University of California Press, 1993. Print.

Centenera, Mar. “Historias trágicas detrás del ‘miércoles negro’ en Argentina.” El País , 19 Oct. 2016,

Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood & Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. W. W. Norton & Company, 2011. Print.

Cleary, Edward L. "Beginning of the Human Rights Era: Military Repression.” The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America. Praeger, 1997. Print.

Collyns, Dan. “Women in Peru protest against rising tide of murder and sexual crime.” The Guardian,

Corrales, Javier. “Six Reasons Why Argentina Legalized Gay Marriage First.” Americas Quarterly, 30 July 2010. web.

Dangl, Benjamin. The Price of Fire: Resources, War, and Social Movements in Bolivia. AK Press, 2007.

Dinges, John. “The Condor system.” The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism To Three Continents. The New Press, 2005. pp. 99-125. Print.

Eisenhammer, Stephen. “Bare Life in Ciudad Juárez: Violence in a Space of Exclusion.” Latin American Perspectives, 30 Oct. 2013.

Ellner, Steve. “Social and Political Diversity and the Democratic Road to Change in Venezuela.” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 40, no. 190, ser. 3, May 2013, pp. 63–82.

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014.

Fernandez Retamar, Roberto. “Caliban: A question”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. 375- 378. Print.

Finnegan, William. “Venezuela, a failing state.” The New Yorker, 14 Nov. 2016.

Fletcher, Bill, and Peter Kornbluh. “Independence Movements Under Fidel Castro.” Democracy Now, 28 Nov. 2016.

Florescano, Enrique. "The Colonial Latifundio," The Mexico Reader: History, Culture, and Politics. Joseph, Gilbert M., and Timothy J. Henderson, editors. Duke University Press Books, 2003. Print.

Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. Monthly Review Press, 1997. 1-58.

Gallegos, Zorayda. “Hallados 4.600 fragmentos óseos en un campo de exterminio de Los Zetas.” El País , 1 Nov. 2016,

Goodyear, Dana. “Defiance and Anxiety Among Undocumented Youth in Trump’s America.” The New Yorker, 11 Nov. 2016,

Greenwald, Glenn, et al, editors. “Brazil Is Engulfed by Ruling Class Corruption — and a Dangerous Subversion of Democracy.” The Intercept_, 18 Mar. 2016,

Guevara, Che. “Message to the Tricontinental.” Che Guevara Internet Archive, 1967,

Gutierrez, Gustavo. ”Theology: a critical reflection.” A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation. Orbis Books, 1988. pp. 2-25. Print.

Holpuch, Amanda. “Immigrants fear Trump deportations: ‘This election changed my optimism'.” The Guardian, 11 Nov. 2016,

Joyce, Christopher, and Eric Stover. “A Southern Exposure.” Witnesses from the Grave. Little Brown & Co (T), 1991. pp. 205-304. Print.

Klein, Naomi. “It was the Democrats' embrace of neoliberalism that won it for Trump.” The Guardian, 9 Nov. 2016.

Kolko, G. Confronting The Third World: United States Foreign Policy 1945-1980. Pantheon, 1988. Print.

Lefeber, Walter. “The Collapse of The System.” Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. W. W. Norton & Company, 1993. pp. 197-270. Print.

Langlois, Jessica. “How the Chicanas of Eastside Mujeres Network Are Fighting to End Violence Against Women.” LA Weekly, 21 Sept. 2016,

Marti, Jose. Obras Completas: Edición Critica. Paperback. 2002. Print.

Menchu, Rigoberta. “Rigoberta Menchu.” The Oxford of Latin American Essays. Oxford University Press, 1997. pp. 490-494. Print.

Minic, Cristóbal Alvarado. “Venezuela Expert Miguel Tinker Salas Breaks Down Nation’s Crisis.” Pomona College, 27 June 2016,

Moreno Fraginals, M. “The Death of the Forest.” The Cuba Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Eds. Chomsky, A., et al., editors. The Duke Press, 2009. Print.

Neruda, Pablo. Neruda: Selected Poems. Houghton Mifflin, 1990. Print.

Ocaño, Manuel . “Culpa organización a EU de crear un caos de refugiados en la frontera mexicana.” El Latino San Diego , 27 Oct. 2016.

Piketty, Thomas. “We must rethink globalization, or Trumpism will prevail.” The Guardian, 16 Nov. 2016,

Schlesinger, S., et al, editors. The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, 2005. Print.

Semanal, Bitacora . “La Jornada Mexico. Violencia contra mujeres.” La Jornada en linea.

Skidmore, Thomas E., et al.,. Modern Latin America. “Mexico: The Taming of a Revolution.” Oxford University Press, 2013. Print.

Sitrin, Marina A. “Horizontalidad.” Everyday Revolutions: Horizontalism and Autonomy in Argentina. Zed Books, 1988. pp. 61-100. Print.

The Associated Press in Rio de Janeiro. “ Brazil police use pepper spray at austerity protest outside Rio parliament.” The Guardian, 16 Nov. 2016,

Vicuna, Cecilia, and Ernesto Livon-Grosman. The Oxford Book of Latin American Poetry. Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

West, Cornel. “Goodbye, American neoliberalism. A new era is here.” The Guardian, 17 Nov. 2016,

William B, Taylor, and Kenneth Mills, editors. Colonial Spanish America: A Documentary History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998. Print.

Wilson, Diana Tamar. “Violence Against Women in Latin America.” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 41, no. 194, ser. 1, 16 Dec. 2014.