HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN LATIN AMERICA

Tomás F. Crowder-Taraborrelli
Soka University of America
Course meets: 1:00- 4:00 p.m.
Office: Ikeda 414


Office hours: By appointment


HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN LATIN AMERICA
INTS 490
Advanced topics in International Studies

Introduction

This course is designed for students who have already taken an introductory human rights course. As such, it will further contextualize human rights as an ethical and judicial principle, and draw analytical parallels to the development of political rights under colonialism, liberalism, and neoliberalism in Latin America. This is an interdisciplinary course; students will read essays, watch documentary and fiction films, listen to music and research the life and work of Latin American authors and social movements. The course will give students a general knowledge of major political events in the region that have challenged established notions of human rights and justice.

Special attention will be given to the systematic use of violence during the armed conflicts of the 1960s and 1970s and the textual and visual testimonies that attempt to document the trauma of political groups and human rights organizations repressed by terrorist States. We will examine the neoliberal turn in politics and human rights rhetoric and track its impact on international law and local governance. An important part of this course will be to consider the role that documentation has played in cataloging atrocities. We will consider groundbreaking evidence that has paved the way for democratic reforms in certain countries and helped to change complicated amnesty laws that have historically blocked the prosecution of crimes against humanity. We will also explore the role of amnesty laws within the larger international legal community.

Assignments
Proposal for research paper                           15% (4 pages)
Annotated bibliography for research paper             10% (2 pages)
AR Presentation                                       10%
Discussion and participation                          30%
Final Paper                                           35% (15 pages)

Weekly required readings will be around 100 pages to be done ahead of class. You must come to class prepared for discussion. Read the text or texts assigned before class, take copious notes and come prepared to class with questions. Your participation not only will improve your overall grade but it is a fundamental part of the course’s success. Each student will lead one discussion seminar, introducing a text or the work of an author or filmmaker and explaining its relevance to the history of human rights in the region. We will watch films in class and attend a couple of screenings outside class (if possible). We will analyze films both as artistic products (formal qualities, cinematic genres and stylistic influences) and as sociological documents.

The course will culminate with a 15 page argumentative essay (research paper). I will be happy to discuss a prospectus for the essay and help you organize your bibliography.  Please type all written work using a standard 12-point font, use double-spaced text, leave a one-inch margin on all sides, and staple multiple pages. Late papers will be marked down 1/3 grade for each day late. Please follow the MLA Style or APA format for citations and general style formatting. You can find an online version of style manuals at:


Accommodation for Persons with a Disability
Student desiring accommodations on the basis of physical learning, or psychological disability for this class is to contact the Office of Student Services. Student Services is located in Student Affairs.

Please check on Brightspace for a weekly update of reading and writing assignments.

COURSE SCHEDULE

WEEK 1: Human Rights in Latin America

Friday September 8th
Introduction to the Course
 Cardenas, S. (2011). Human rights in Latin America: a politics of terror and hope. Philadelphia: Univ Of Pennsylvania Pr. (44 pgs). (CR) 46 pgs.
 Ishay, M. (2009). The history of human rights: from ancient times to the globalization era. Chapter 2. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. (AR) 51 pgs.

FILM: Chicago Boys (2015), by Carola Fuentes and Rafael Valdeavellano (85 mins.)

*Thursday, September 14th:
Opening Art Show Soka University Gallery: Artists Sebastián Chillemi and Pablo Salvadó.  Sleeping in the Forest. Dreamscapes of nature and society. Reception: 5:30- 7:30 p.m.


WEEK 2: Dictatorships and State Repression during the Cold War

Friday September 15th
Amnesty International. "Urgent Action." Santiago Maldonado
 Los Espiritus, "Perdida en el Fuego" [Recording]

Dinges, J. (2005). The Condor Years: how Pinochet and his allies brought terrorism to three continents. "The Condor System." New York: New Press. (CR) 27 pags.
 Garcia Espinosa, Julio. "For an Imperfect Cinema." Chomsky, A., Carr, B., & Smorkaloff, P. M. (2006). The Cuba reader: history, culture, politics. Durham: Duke University Press. (CR) 8 pgs.
 Walsh, Rodolfo. "Open Letter From A Writer To The Military Junta." http://www.jus.gob.ar/media/2940455/carta_rw_ingles-espa_ol_web.pdf (CR)
 Walsh, Rodolfo. "Carta abierta de un escritor a la Junta Militar".
El Pais. "Los 43 de Ayotzinapa, una cartografia de la violencia en Mexico".
 https://elpais.com/internacional/2017/09/07/mexico/1504807666_400055.html


FILMS:

Olla Popular (1968), by Gerardo Vallejo (4 mins.) [in class screening]
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKDnig288W8
Las AAA son las tres armas (1979), by Cine de la Base/Jorge Denti (16 mins.) [in class screening]
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI-vJofHdp0
Raymundo, by Ernesto Ardito and Virna Molina (127 mins) [in class screening]
 https://vimeo.com/37441523


Friday, September 22nd
Archard, David and Colin M. Macleod. The Moral And Political Status of Children. Introduction. Chapter 2 & Chapter 3. (CR) 45 pages.
 Sikkink, Kathryn. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics. Do Human Rights Prosecutions Make A Difference?. (CR)  35 pgs.
 Ocampo Saravia, Tania. "Guerra y desaparición forzada de infantes en El Salvador." Cultura y Representaciones Sociales, 2013.
 http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2007-81102013000200007 (AR)

FILM: The Metal Stork (2015), by Joan Lopez Lloret [in class screening]. 80 min.

Assignment: Please bring to class a hard copy of the topic of your research project and a brief description of it.


Friday, September 29th
Report (Argentina), Human Rights Watch "The Theft of Babies." (CR) 4 pages.
 https://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/argentina/argen1201-05.htm
Moon, Claire. "Forensic Knowledge, Human Remains and the Politics of the Past." Latin American Perspectives, January 8, 2013 (CR) 20 pages
Equipo Peruano de Antropología Forense [explore the website] (CR) Explore the website.
 http://epafperu.org/en
Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense [explore the website] (CR) Explore the website.
 http://www.eaaf.org/
Testimony of Erik Stover y Clyde Snow in the Juntas Trial, Argentina (pgs. 17 and 18) (AR)
 http://www.memoriaabierta.org.ar/juicioalasjuntas/pdfs/diariodeljuicio/el-diario-del-juicio-01.pdf
Cohen-Salama, M. Tumbas Anónimas: Informe sobre la identificación de restos de víctimas de la represión ilegal. (87-95) (AR)
 https://www.academia.edu/11947991/Tumbas_Anonimas

FILM: NN, by Héctor Gálvez, 89 mins. [screening in class]


Friday, October 5th
FILM: Las Madres: The Mothers of Plaza Mayo by Lourdes Portillo & Susana Munoz, 1988 (64 minutes).

Knippers Black, Jan. The Politics of Human Rights Protection. Chapters 18 and 19. (CR) 25 pages.
United Nations Decade For Human Rights Education (1995-2004) [for your reference]
 http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Education/Training/Pages/Decade.aspx
Navarro, Marysa. "The Personal is Political: Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo." Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements. Ed. Susan Eckstein. (CR) 18 pages.

Estela de Carlotto, Press Conference [sequence screened in class]
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDC-WXz2GS8
A grandmother's 36-year hunt for the child stolen by the Argentinian junta, The Guardian. [CR] 4 pgs.
 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/07/grandmothers-of-plaza-de-mayo-36-year-hunt-for-stolen-child
Rivera Hernandez, Raul Diego y Mariana Ortega Brena. "Making Absence Visible: The Caravan of Central American Mothers in Search of Disappeared Migrants." Latin American Perspectives, September 2017. (19 pages) [AR]

Assignment Due! Annotated Bibliography (bring a hard copy to class).


Friday, October 13th
FILM: Naomi Campbell: It's Not Easy To Become A Different Person/ Naomi Campbell: No es facil convertirse en otra persona, by Nicolas Videla and Camila Jose Donoso, 85 min.

Corrales, Javier and Mario Pechemy. "Introduction." The Comparative Politics of Sexuality in Latin America: A Reader on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights. 30 pgs. (CR)
 Prieur, Annick. Mema's House, Mexico City: On Transvestites, Queens, and Machos. "Stealing Femininity: On Bodily and Symbolic Constructions." (CR) 39 pgs.

CNDH, Comision Nacional de los Derechos Humanos, "Los derechos humanos de los transgeneros, transexuales y travestis." (AR) 36 pages
 http://www.cndh.org.mx/sites/all/doc/cartillas/2015-2016/31-DH-Transgenero.pdf
Mexico encara la crisis de los desaparecidos con una nueva ley, El Pais, 10/13/17
 https://elpais.com/internacional/2017/10/12/mexico/1507844976_896227.html


Friday, October 20th
FILM: Finding Oscar, Ryan Suffern.

Weld, Kirsten. "Introduction: The Power of Archival Thinking," and "Revolutionary Lives in the Archives." Paper Cadavers: The Archives of Dictatorship in Guatemala. (CR) 60 pages
 Sarkar, Bhaskar and Janet Walker. "Introduction: Moving Testimonies." Documentary Testimonies: Global Archives of Suffering.  (AR) 25 pages.

*Tuesday, October 17th:
Workshop with Chilean muralist Camilo Diaz
 https://vimeo.com/182502953/402e3e6656

Camilo Diaz will give a short talk and mural workshop called “Paint and Struggle” on Tuesday Oct 17 from 4:30 to 6:30.  Following a presentation and discussion about UMLEM, a group of Chilean muralists who work to create political and social change through public art, Mr. Diaz will guide students in their own politically oriented mural project.  Students will be able to paint murals within the Residence Halls.  


Friday, October 27th
Interview with SUA alumni. Human Rights violations in Venezuela.

For those interested in learning about the political situation in Venezuela please read the following article by Steve Ellner:

https://monthlyreview.org/2017/10/01/venezuelas-fragile-revolution/
or
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0094582X16647082

We will be reviewing all readings we have discussed so far in the semester. If you missed some of the screenings, please check out the films from the library and watch them before class.

FILM: Island of Flowers, by Jorge Furtado (1989)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQcdXh9v0pA


Friday, November 3rd
Oral Presentations- 5-8 minutes.

Hicks, Kathryn and Nicole Fabricant. "The Bolivian Climate Justice Movement: Mobilizing Indigeneity in Climate Change Negotiations." Latin American Perspectives, 2016 (CR)
"Who ordered Killing of Honduran Activist..." The New York Times.  (CR)
 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/28/world/americas/honduras-berta-caceres-desa.html
"Time has created distance..." The Guardian. (CR)
 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/01/peru-film-makers-cinema-internal-conflict?CMP=share_btn_fb
"Las consecuencias sociales del cambio climatico global" (AR)
 http://clacso.org.ar/megafon/megafon18.php

FILM: H20 mx, by Jose Cohen (2015) [sequence screened in class]


Friday, November 10th
Oral Presentations- 5-8 minutes.  (cont.)

Reportero, by Bernardo Ruiz, 2013. (73 mins.)
 https://soka.kanopystreaming.com/video/reportero
Silva Lopes, Ivonete. "Political Culture and the Democratization of Communications in Brazil." LAP


Friday, November 17th
Media and Democratization in Latin America, by Javier Campo and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli. (Lecture of forthcoming special issue of Latin American Perspectives on Media and Democratization in Latin America).
 Silva Lopes, Ivonete. "Political Culture and the Democratization of Communications in Brazil." LAP (reading from last week) (CR)
 Zamorano Villareal, Gabriela. "The Plan Nacional, a Process of Indigenous Communication." Indigenous Media and Political Imaginaries in Contemporary Bolivia. (to be uploaded soon).  (CR)

Assessment of Media Development in Bolivia (UN Report) Category 2 (pgs. 37-50). (AR)
 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002469/246906e.pdf
Keynote Lecture Iván Sanjinés, Visible Evidence Buenos Aires, 2017.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=161&v=Caa699iwHdo
Plurinacional TV
 http://www.plurinacional.tv/v/wsCF2y6xN0R


Friday, December 1st.
Oral Presentations- 5-8 minutes.  (cont.)

"Islamabad," Fito Paez
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Faxx6NO0rU0 [played in class]

Aquarius, Kleber Mendonca Filho. 2 hrs. 26 mins. (shown in two parts).

Maricato, Erminia. "The Future of Global Peripheral Cities." Latin American Perspectives, March 2017. (CR)
http://journals.sagepub.com.soka.idm.oclc.org/doi/pdf/10.1177/0094582X16685174
Friendly, Abigail. "Urban Policy, Social Movements, and the Right to the the City in Brazil." Latin American Perspectives, March 2017. (CR)
http://journals.sagepub.com.soka.idm.oclc.org/doi/pdf/10.1177/0094582X16675572

Please go over this articles before class:

https://www.theguardian.com/cities/ng-interactive/2017/nov/27/living-edge-sao-paulo-inequality-mapped (CR)
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/nov/27/inside-crackland-open-air-crack-market-sao-paulo (CR)
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/nov/27/revealed-fires-sao-paulo-favelas-higher-value-land  (CR)
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/live/2017/nov/27/guardian-cities-live-sao-paulo (CR)
https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/nov/27/resistance-sao-paulo-homeless-reclaim-city-occupations (CR)
"Argentina 'death flight pilots sentenced to death..." The Guardian. (AR)
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/29/argentina-death-flight-pilots-sentenced-for-deaths-including-popes-friend?CMP=share_btn_fb
AL Jazeera
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEL_96lbr8Q
Friday, December 8th

Aquarius, Kleber Mendonca Filho. 2 hrs. 26 mins. (second part/discussion of the film).

Rocha, Glauber. "Aesthetic of Hunger." 
http://www.diagonalthoughts.com/?p=1708

Continue our discussion of:

Maricato, Erminia. "The Future of Global Peripheral Cities." Latin American Perspectives, March 2017. (CR)
http://journals.sagepub.com.soka.idm.oclc.org/doi/pdf/10.1177/0094582X16685174

Friendly, Abigail. "Urban Policy, Social Movements, and the Right to the the City in Brazil." Latin American Perspectives, March 2017. (CR)
http://journals.sagepub.com.soka.idm.oclc.org/doi/pdf/10.1177/0094582X16675572


Friday, December 15th
Deadline to submit your final research project.
Please submit via email your final research paper by 6 p.m.

Bibliography

Archard, David, and Colin M. Macleod. The moral and political status of children. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Aquarius, Directed by Kleber Mendonca Filho, 2016.

Assessment of Media Development in Bolivia. UNESCO, 2017.

Barcelos, Iuri and Natalia Viana. “Revealed: fires in São Paulo Favelas more likely on higher-value land.” The Guardian, 2017.

Campo, Javier and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli. Media and Democratization in Latin America: Lecture of forthcoming special issue of Latin American Perspectives on Media and Democratization in Latin America. 2017. 

Cardenas, Sonia. Human rights in Latin America: a politics of terror and hope. Univ Of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

Chicago Boys. Directed by Carola Fuentes and Rafael Valdevellano. 2015.

CNDH, Comision Nacional de los Derechos Humanos Mexico, "Los derechos humanos de los transgeneros, transexuales y travestis." http://www.cndh.org.mx/sites/all/doc/cartillas/2015-2016/31-DH-Transgenero.pdf

Cohen-Salama, M. Tumbas Anónimas: Informe sobre la identificación de restos de víctimas de la represión ilegal. Catálogos Editora, 1992. pp. 87-95. 

Collyns, Dan. "Time has created distance: Peru’s filmmakers take on country’s long conflict.” The Guardian, 2017.

Corrales, Javier and Mario Pechemy. "Introduction." The Comparative Politics of Sexuality in Latin America: A Reader on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights. University of Pittsburgh Press. 2010.

Cowie, Sam. “Inside Crackland: the open-air drug market that São Paulo just can’t kick.” The Guardian, 2017.

Dinges, J. "The Condor System." The Condor Years: how Pinochet and his allies brought terrorism to three continents. New York: New Press. 2005. 

Ellner, Steve. “Venezuela’s Fragile Revolution.” Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine, vol. 69, no. 05. 2017.

Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense. http://www.eaaf.org/

Equipo Peruano de Antropología Forense. http://epafperu.org/en

Estela de Carlotto, Press Conference. YouTube, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDC-WXz2GS8

Ferri, Pablo. “Los 43 de Ayotzinapa, una cartografía de la violencia en México.” El País. 2017.

Finding Oscar. Directed by Ryan Suffern. 2016.

Friendly, Abigail. "Urban Policy, Social Movements, and the Right to the the City in Brazil." Latin American Perspectives, 2017.

Gallegos, Zorayda. “Mexico encara la crisis de los desaparecidos con una nueva ley.” El Pais, 13 October, 2017.

Garcia Espinosa, Julio. "For an Imperfect Cinema." The Cuba reader: history, culture, politics. Eds. Chomsky, A., Carr, B., & Smorkaloff, P. M.Durham: Duke University Press. 2006.

Goñi, Uki. “A grandmother's 36-year hunt for the child stolen by the Argentinian junta.” The Guardian. 2015.

Goñi, Uki. “Argentina ‘death flight’ pilots sentenced or deaths including pope’s friends.” The Guardian, 2017.

Hellinger, Daniel and Anthony P. Spanakos. The Legacy of Hugo Chávez. Latin American Perspectives, 2016.

Hicks, Kathryn and Nicole Fabricant. "The Bolivian Climate Justice Movement: Mobilizing Indigeneity in Climate Change Negotiations." Latin American Perspectives, 2016.

H20 mx. Directed by Jose Cohen, 2015.

Island of Flowers. Directed by Jorge Furtado. YouTube, 1989.

"Islamabad," by Fito Paez. YouTube, 2017. 

Ishay, Micheline R. The history of human rights: from ancient times to the globalization era. Univ. of California Press. 2009.

Keynote Lecture Iván Sanjinés, Visible Evidence Buenos Aires, 2017. Plurinacional TV, 2017.

Knippers Black, Jan. The Politics of Human Rights Protection. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2009.

Las AAA son las tres armas. Directed by Jorge Denti. Cine de la Base. 1979.

"Las consecuencias sociales del cambio climatico global." Megafon: La Batalla de las ideas, 2017.

Las Madres: The Mothers of Plaza Mayo. Directed by Lourdes Portillo & Susana Munoz. 1988.

“Living on the Edge: São Paulo’s Inequality Mapped.” The Guardian, 17.

Los Espíritus. “Perdida en el fuego.” 2017.

Malking, Elizabeth. "Who ordered Killing of Honduran Activist..." The New York Times, 2017.

Maricato, Erminia. "The Future of Global Peripheral Cities." Latin American Perspectives, 2017.

Michael, Chris, et all. “Guardian Cities: Live from São Paulo’s occupations.” The Guardian, 2017.

Moon, Claire. "Forensic Knowledge, Human Remains and the Politics of the Past." Latin American Perspectives. 2013.

Naomi Campbell: It's Not Easy To Become A Different Person/ Naomi Campbell: No es facil convertirse en otra persona. Directed by Nicolas Videla and Camila Jose Donoso, 2013.

Navarro, Marysa. "The Personal is Political: Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo." Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements. Ed. Susan Eckstein. University of California Press, 2001.

NN. Directed by Héctor Gálvez. 2014

Ocampo Saravia, Tania. "Guerra y desaparición forzada de infantes en El Salvador." Cultura y Representaciones Sociales, 2013.

Olla Popular, Directed Gerardo Vallejo. 1968.

Prieur, Annick. "Stealing Femininity: On Bodily and Symbolic Constructions." Mema's House, Mexico City: On Transvestites, Queens, and Machos. 1968.

Raymundo. Directed by Ernesto Ardito and Virna Molina. Vassar College NY. 2003.

Reportero. Directed by Bernardo Ruiz. Kanopy, 2013.

“Resistance! São Paulo’s homeless seize the city.” The Guardian, 2017.

Rivera Hernandez, Raul Diego y Mariana Ortega Brena. "Making Absence Visible: The Caravan of Central American Mothers in Search of Disappeared Migrants." Latin American Perspectives, September 2017.

Rocha, Glauber. “Aesthetic of Hunger/Aesthetic of Dream.” Diagonal Thoughts.

Sarkar, Bhaskar and Janet Walker. "Introduction: Moving Testimonies." Documentary Testimonies: Global Archives of Suffering. Routledge, 2009.

Sikkink, Kathryn. The justice cascade: how human rights prosecutions are changing world politics. W.W. Norton & Co., 2011.

Silva Lopes, Ivonete. "Political Culture and the Democratization of Communications in Brazil.” Latin American Perspectives, 2014.

“Testimony of Erik Stover y Clyde Snow in the Juntas Trial.” El Diario del Juicio. 1985.

The Metal Stork. Directed by Joan Lopez Lloret. 2015.

"The Theft of Babies." Report (Argentina), Human Rights Watch.

United Nations Decade For Human Rights Education (1995-2004). United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner.

“Urgent Action." Amnesty International. Santiago Maldonado. 2017.

Walsh, Rodolfo. "Open Letter From A Writer To The Military Junta." Archivo Nacional de la Memoria. 1977.

Weld, Kirsten. Paper Cadavers: The Archives of Dictatorship in Guatemala. Duke University Press Books, 2014.

Zamorano Villareal, Gabriela. "The Plan Nacional, a Process of Indigenous Communication." Indigenous Media and Political Imaginaries in Contemporary Bolivia. University of Nebraska Press, 2017.